Adequate generation and supply of grid connected electricity is the bedrock of sustainable development in India. India has achieved 100% village electrification. Tracking data and information on grid based electrification in India is important to provide up to date information on progress of grid based electrification. This section, provides latest statistics and figures on India's electricity generation capacity, list of technology wise IPPs and actual electricity generation.
India has witnessed rapid year wise growth in renewable energy installed capacity between 2012-13 and 2018-19. Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of renewable installed capacity during the same period has been 18.80% which prompted a whopping 2.8 times increase in renewable installed capacity. Solar technology has witnessed the highest CAGR (60.46%) during the period followed by biomass (18.12%), wind (11.00%), waste to energy (6.26%) and small hydro (3.99%) respectively. The solar energy installed capacity has increased the maximum. For solar energy, installed capacity in the end of 2018-19 was 20 times than that in the end of 2012-13. The share of solar technology in total installed capacity has increased from 6.01% in 2012-13 to 36.47% in 2018-19. For all other technologies, share in total renewable installed capacity has decreased between 2012-13 and 2018-19. Share of wind has decreased from 67.88% to 45.14%, share of biomass has decreased from 12.83% to 12.39%, share of SHP has decreased from 12.94% to 5.82% and the share of waste to energy has decreased from 0.34% to 0.18% between the same time interval.
Renewable energy installed capacity in India is concentrated across few major states. These states are Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan. Moreover, around 93% to 95% of total renewable energy capacity have been installed in top 10 states over a period from end of FY 2013-14 to end of FY 2018-19. However, these installed capacities are commensurate with the renewable energy potential across the states with high installed capacities observed in high potential states. From 2013-14 to 2016-17, Tamil Nadu ranked first among Indian states in terms of renewable energy installed capacity. But since 2017-18, Karnataka has replaced Tamil Nadu to achieve rank 1 in terms of total renewable energy installed capacity. If region wise installed capacity is considered, the Southern region has the highest installed capacity followed by the Western region, Northern region, Eastern region and North-Eastern region respectively between 2013-14 and 2018-19. In addition, the progress in the Eastern region states and the North-East region states is lagging behind that in other region states. Nevertheless, states like Bihar, West Bengal, Odisha and Arunachal Pradesh have shown good progress over the period from 2013-14 to 2018-19.
India’s cumulative installed renewable energy capacity has increased from 28067.26 MW in 2013-14 to 78316.43 MW in 2018-19. Interestingly the cumulative installed capacity of waste to energy projects decreased from 96.08 MW in 2012-13 to 90.58 in 2013-14. This indicates the decommissioning of few waste to energy power plants in the country during that period. Cumulative installed capacity for remaining technologies kept on increasing between 2012-13 and 2018-19. If capacity addition is considered, highest renewable energy capacity was added during 2017-18 (11778.15 MW) followed by 2016-17 (11320.19 MW), 2018-19 (9294.04 MW), 2015-16 (6964.89 MW), 2013-14 (6920.74 MW) and 2014-15 (3971.16 MW) respectively between 2013-14 and 2018-19. Interestingly, the capacity addition was dominated by wind technology in the initial periods whereas at the later stage capacity addition for solar technology dominated capacity addition in other technologies.
Technology wise renewable energy capacity addition has decreased from 9362.65 MW in 2017-18 to 6529.23 MW in 2018-19 for solar technology, from 1766.23 MW in 2017-18 to 1579.97 MW in 2018-19 for wind technology and from 24.22 MW in 2017-18 to 0 MW in 2018-19. However, the same has increased for biomass technologies from 519.10 MW in 2017-18 to 1077.47 in 2018-19, for small hydro technology from 105.95 MW in 2017-18 to 107.34 MW in 2018-19 and for waste to energy technologies.
Karnataka has the highest installed capacity (13844.99 MW) among Indian states as on 31st March 2019. However, as on 31st March 2017, Tamil Nadu had the highest installed capacity (10625 MW) among Indian states. Later since 2017-18, Karnataka has overtaken Tamil Nadu to top the table. Despite a very high level of achievement by top 5 states, the concentration of installed capacity is very high among top states. In other words, as on 31st March 2017, each of the 50% of the states had installed capacity of 177 MW or less. This number slightly increased as on 31st March 2018 to 187 MW and as on March 31st 2019 to 194 MW.
Karnataka had added maximum capacity of 4980.88 MW during 2017-18 followed by Telangana (2113.64 MW), Maharashtra (931.28 MW), Gujarat (623.43 MW) and Andhra Pradesh (561.46 MW) respectively. However, during 2018-19, Tamil Nadu added the maximum capacity of 1505.72 MW followed by Karnataka (1406.14 MW), Gujarat (1356.48 MW), Andhra Pradesh (1112.70 MW) and Rajasthan (898.02 MW) respectively. Overall capacity addition has decreased in 2018-19 as compared to 2017-18. This is mainly attributable to a drastic reduction in capacity addition in the Southern region (from 8237.21 MW in 2017-18 to 4391.05 MW in 2018-19). Capacity addition has increased in the remaining four regions in the country. Most significant increase has been observed in North East region where capacity addition has increased from 1.43 MW in 2017-18 to 55.53 MW in 2018-19. Similarly, in the Eastern region capacity addition has increased from 47.66 MW during 2017-18 to 404.32 MW during 2018-19.
India has set an ambitious target of 175 GW renewable energy capacity installation by 2022. The targets are distributed among four technologies, namely, solar, wind, small hydro and biomass. The target for solar technology is almost 100 GW out of which 40 GW is dedicated for roof top solar technologies. The target for wind technology is 60 GW, for biomass technology 10 GW and for small hydro technology 5 GW. The Southern region has the highest target of 59018 MW followed by the Western region (54010 MW), Northern region (46318 MW), Eastern region (12616 MW) and North Eastern Region (1821 MW). Tamil Nadu has been allocated the highest target of 21508 MW, whereas Lakshadweep has been allocated the least target of 4 MW.
IPPs are playing an increasingly important role in bridging the power deficit in India. Private investment in the power sector has risen from no private participation in 1990 to active private participation in government bids. Renewable energy IPPs form a very large part of this investment, and the sector will continue to grow only when backed by favorable government policies.
Total Installed Power
The monthly installed capacity of renewable energy technologies has been increasing gradually. Similar trend is observed for conventional source based technologies. But the percentage share of renewable energy in total monthly installed capacity is increasing over years whereas that for conventional technologies has been decreasing gradually. Within renewable energy sector solar installed capacity has been increasing rapidly on monthly basis whereas the rate of increase in installed capacity is slow for other renewable energy technologies. Although the installed capacity for conventional source based technologies has been increasing gradually, there percentage share in total installed capacity is decreasing gradually meaning a proportionately less increase in the installed capacity of conventional source based energy as compared total capacity increase.
Capacity addition of conventional source based energy technologies has decreased steadily from 20.4 GW in 2012-13 to 3.37 GW in 2018-19. In contrast, the capacity addition of renewable energy has increased from 3.10 GW in 2012-13 to 8.60 GW in 2018-19. In 2016, the capacity addition for renewable energy exceeded the capacity addition for conventional energy for the first time. Since then capacity addition in conventional sources of energy technologies has decreased. On the other hand, capacity addition for renewable energy technologies has increased in one year and decreased in the next year. read more
India’s installed capacity has increased from 160 GW as on 31st March 2010 to 356 GW as on 31st March 2019. The conventional based energy installed capacity has increased from 102 GW as on 31st March 2010 to 226 GW as on 31st March 2019. Among conventional sources, coal and lignite based energy generation installed capacity has increased the most (from 84 GW as on 31st March 2010 to 201 GW as on 31st March 2019). Interestingly, the diesel based generation capacity has decreased from 1.2 GW as on 31st March 2010 to 0.6 GW as on 31st March 2019. The nuclear based capacity has increased from 4.5 GW as on 31st March 2010 to 6.8 GW as on 31st March 2019. However, the most significant growth has been observed in the renewable energy sector as the sector grew from 16 GW as on 31st March 2010 to 78 GW as on 31st March 2019.
Total Electricity Generation
Conventional sources dominate the electricity generation in India. India’s total electricity generation has increased from 1110.45 BU in 2014-15 to 1371.38 BU in 2018-19 which is a compound annual growth rate of 5%. Generation from conventional sources has increased from 1048.67 BU in 2014-15 to 1246.13 BU in 2018-19 which is a CAGR of 4% and generation from renewable energy sources has increased from 61.78 BU in 2014-15 to 125.25 BU in 2018-19 which is a CAGR of 19%. From the CAGR it is evident that the share of RE in total generation has increased while that of conventional sources in total generation has decreased. More specifically speaking, the share of conventional sources in total electricity generation has decreased from 94.44% in 2014-15 to 90.87% in 2018-19. On the other hand, the share of renewables in total generation has increased from 5.56% in 2014-15 to 9.13% in 2018-19. read more
Monthly electricity generation chart is dominated by thermal power plants. The generation from thermal power plants has a big range with highest generation at 97360 MU in October 2018 and lowest generation at 82180 MU in July 2018. The average generation from the thermal power plants was 89505 MU in 2018-19. However, in terms of percentage share in total electricity generation, thermal power plants recorded highest share in April 2018 (82.84%) and lowest share in August 2018 (68.88%). As per expectation, the months in which generation from thermal plants were lower saw higher generation from hydro and wind projects. For example, in August 2018, share of hydro in total generation was 15.39% and that from wind was 9.72%, both recording highest generation of the year. The variation in generation from hydro power plants is very high with the lowest generation at 6726 MU in the month of February 2019 and the highest generation at 18640 MU in August 2018. Much like the hydro power, the generation from wind projects is also highly variable. The highest generation from the wind projects was 11771.66 MU in August 2018 and the lowest generation was 2181.03 MU in November 2018. The average generation from wind projects is 5169.70 MU. Interestingly, the median generation from wind power projects is 3208.61 MU meaning that a bulk portion of the generation comes from a few months. Based on the data available it is evident that lion’s share of power generation from wind projects came between June 2018 and September 2018. The generation from other sources is more or less stable over one-year period. read more
Electricity generation from wind technologies has increased from 33.77 BU in 2014-15 to 62.03 BU in 2018-19. The same for solar has increased from 4.60 BU in 2014-15 to 39.27 BU in 2018-19, for biomass has increased from 14.95 BU in 2014-15 to 16.33 BU in 2018-19, for small hydro power has increased from 8.06 BU in 2014-15 to 8.70 BU in 2018-19, for waste to energy has increased from 0.41 BU in 2014-15 to 0.43 BU in 2018-19. However, the share in total generation has increased only for solar technologies from 7.44% in 2014-15 to 30.97% in 2018-19. The share in total generation for all other technologies has decreased over the same time period.
Many times grid based electricity is supplied for a short period of time in a day. Moreover, there are places where extension of grid is not possible or feasible. Thus decentralized systems are important to ensure electricity supply for a larger period or provide electricity to places where grid extension is not feasible. This section provides latest statistics and figures on decentralized systems, both solar and non-solar used for electricity generation.
Micro / Mini Grid
Solar home lighting systems and stand-alone solar photovoltaic based kW scale power plants are two main pillars of decentralized solar systems. Maximum number of solar home lighting systems have been distributed in Tamil Nadu (290376 nos.) followed by Uttar Pradesh (235909 nos.), Rajasthan (187968 nos.), West Bengal (145332 nos.) and Jammu and Kashmir (144316 nos.) till end of March 2019. There were no distribution of solar home lighting systems in Delhi and Telangana. As per as stand-alone SPV based power plants are concerned, highest capacity (31249.90 kWp) was inatslled in Chhattisgarh, followed by Rajasthan (30349 kWp), Kerala (15825.39 kWp), Gujarat (13576.60 kWp) and Tamil Nadu (12752.60 kWp) by March 2019. The lowest capacity of systems were installed in Goa (32.72 kWp).
Water pumping mills and aero generators and hybrid systems are two major decentralized power generation technologies. Number of water pumping mills has increased from 1351 as on March 2010 to 1536 as on March 2019 thereby registering a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of only 1.44%. Capacity of aero generators and hybrid systems has increased from 954 Kw as on march 2010 to 3350 MW as on March 2019 implying a CAGR of almost 15%.
India has set a target of 40 GW grid tied roof top solar installation by 2022. Highest target is set for Maharashtra at 4680 MW, followed by Uttar Pradesh at 4280 MW, Tamil Nadu at 3485 MW, Gujarat at 3185 MW and Rajasthan at 2290 MW. Lowest target has been set at 9 MW for Lakshadweep. As on 31st December 2019, total 2.33 GW grid tied roof top solar has been installed. While during 2018-19 capacity addition for grid tied roof top solar projects was 732 MW, during first 9 months of the FY 2019-20 installation was 1600 MW.
Home Lighting Systems
Year wise installation of home lighting systems has increased from 6,03,307 as on March 2010 to 17,15,214 as on March 2019. The compound annual growth rate for the same is 12.31%. The number of home lighting systems has steadily increased over the years. Only installations as on March 2014 and March 2015 were almost same.
As on March 2019, highest number of home lighting systems were installed in Tamil Nadu (290376 nos.) followed by Uttar Pradesh (235909 nos.), Rajasthan (187968 nos.), West Bengal (145332 nos.) and Jammu and Kashmir (144316 nos.). There were no installations in Delhi and Telangana. Among other states and UT, Puducherry registered the lowest number of solar home system of 25 nos. as on March 2019.