Overview
Grid-Connected Renewables


The energy sector worldwide is on the cusp of a major transition. This is triggered by concerns of fossil fuel depletion, energy security, climate change and sustainability of development. India is also a major participant in this global transition. In 2016, an estimated 161 GW (including large hydro) of renewable energy capacity was added worldwide. This is the largest annual increase till date, up almost 9% compared to 2015, taking the cumulative installed renewable capacity to nearly 2,017 GW (including large hydro) at the end of 2016. Solar PV dominated the landscape with 47% of newly installed renewable power capacity, while wind and hydropower accounted for about 34% and 15.5% respectively. Thus, renewables accounted for an estimated 62% of net additions to global power generating capacity in 2016.

Renewable Installed Capacity in India

From 27.5 GW in 2012-13, total installed grid-connected renewable energy capacity in India reached 57.2 GW at the end of FY 2016-17, with over 20% annual average growth rate in the last five years. (Fig.1). With this, RE now contributes 17.51% of the total installed power generation capacity in the country. Out of total renewable energy installed capacity in the end of FY 2016-17, wind accounted for 32.2 GW (32,279.77 MW, 56.39%) followed by solar with 12.28 GW (12,288.83 MW,21.47%), small hydro 4.37 GW (4,379.86 MW, 7.65%), while biomass with cogeneration and waste-to-energy (WTE) comprised 8.18 GW (8,181.70 MW, 14.29%) and 0.11 GW (114.08 MW, 0.2%) respectively. 

Figure 1. Annual Capacity Addition and Cumulative Installed Capacity of Grid-Connected RE

(2012-2017)

 Source: WISE, 2017 (compiled from MOSPI, CEA data)

For 2016-17, the total capacity addition target for grid-connected renewable power was 16,660 MW out of which wind target was 4000 MW, solar 12,000 MW, small hydro 250 MW, bio-power 400 MW and waste-to-energy 10 MW.  As against this, the actual capacity installed in 2016-17 was 11,320 MW. The technology-wise break-up of actual capacity addition in 2016-17 is given in the table 1 below

Table.1 Capacity Addition in 2016-17 (Grid Connected Power only)

Sr. No.

Technology

Capacity Installed (MW)

1.

Solar

5525.98

2.

Wind

5502.37

3.

Biomass

161.95

4.

Small Hydro

106.39

5.

Waste to Energy

23.50

 

Total

11,320

Source: WISE, 2017 (compiled from CEA data)

According to the recent report published by the Ministry of Power, Govt. of India, for the first time in 2016-17, renewable capacity addition at 11.3 GW exceeded that of conventional energy, which was only 10.3 GW. (Figure 1.8). [8]

Figure 1.8. Capacity Addition in 12th Five-Year Plan Period

(2012 – 2017)

 

 Source: WISE, 2017 (compiled from Ministry of Power and CEA data)

 

Installed Capacity Mix

India is the world’s third largest producer of electricity, having total installed capacity of 326,832.55 MW. Of this, 66.80% is from thermal energy (58.79% from coal, 7.75% from gas and 0.26% from oil), 2.07% from nuclear power, 13.61% from large hydro, and 17.51% from other renewables (Fig 2 and Table 2).  

Figure 2 Source-wise Installed Capacity (March 2017) 

 

 Source: CEA, Installed Capacity, March 2017

 

Table 2 India Electricity Capacity–Mix

Source

Installed Capacity (MW)

% of Total Installed Capacity

Coal

193426.5

58.42%

Gas

25150.38

7.60%

Diesel

837.63

0.25%

Total Thermal

219414.51

66.26%

Nuclear

6780

2.05%

Hydro

44765.42

13.52%

Small Hydro

4389.55

1.33%

Wind

32700.64

9.88%

Biomass/Cogen

8181.7

2.47%

Waste to Energy

114.08

0.03%

Solar Power

14771.69

4.46%

Total Renewable
(Excluding Hydro)

60157.66

18.17%

Grand Total India

331117.59

100.00%

     Source: CEA, Installed Capacity, October  2017

According to the recent report published by the Ministry of Power, Govt. of India, for the first time in 2016-17, renewable capacity addition at 11.3 GW exceeded that of conventional energy, which was only 10.3 GW. (Figure 3).

Figure 3. Capacity Addition in 12th Five-Year Plan Period

(2012 – 2017)

Source: WISE, 2017 (compiled from Ministry of Power and CEA data)


Renewable Energy Generation

For the last three years, electricity generation from renewable energy sources has been rising rapidly. In 2016-17, total RE generation in India was 81.88 BU, up from 65.78 BU in 2015-16. This marked a 24.47% growth from 2015-16. Though electricity generation from solar almost doubled in 2016-17, wind continued to dominate renewable electricity generation in India. Share of wind in total RE electricity generation increased from 50.21% in 2015-16 to 56.19% in 2016-17. In the same period, share of solar increased from 11.32% to 16.49%, with biomass, small hydro and waste-to-energy accounting for 17.28%, 9.68% and 0.37% respectively. (Table 3).

Table 2: Renewable Electricity Generation (BU) with % Share in Total RE Electricity

(2014-15 to 2016-17)

 

Wind

Solar

Biomass

Small Hydro

Waste-to-Energy

Total

% Growth

 

BU

%

BU

%

BU

%

BU

%

BU

%

BU

 

2014-15

33.77

54.65

4.60

7.44

14.95

24.19

8.06

13.04

0.41

0.67

61.79

-

2015-16

33.03

50.21

7.45

11.32

16.68

25.36

8.35

12.70

0.27

0.41

65.78

6.47

2016-17

46.00

56.19

13.50

16.49

14.15

17.28

7.92

9.68

0.30

0.37

81.88

24.47

 
 Source: WISE, 2017 (compiled from CEA reports)

Off-Grid Renewable Energy

With the advent of the Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana (Now Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gram Jyoti Yojana) in 2005, India achieved rapid electrification of villages across the country. However, even after grid extension in the identified regions, a large number of households still remain without access to electricity. India currently has approximately 77 million households who lack adequate access to grid-connected electricity and about 20 million underserved households who receive less than four hours of electricity in a day (Census 2011, India). While grid connectivity is expected to improve over the next 10 years, at the current rate of grid expansion, urbanization and population growth, a large share of households will still not have access to reliable electricity in the near future. Thus, expansion of renewable-based, off-grid electricity in India assumes an important role in India’s electrification process.

As per MNRE data, presently, there are more than 13.9 lakh home lighting systems, while renewable energy-based stand-alone power plants have an installed capacity of about 172 MWp. State/UT-wise status is given in Table 3

Table 3: State/UT-wise Status of Off-Grid Renewable Energy Systems

 

State  / UT

Solar Home Lighting  Systems (No.s)

Stand-Alone  Renewable Energy- Based Power Plants
(kWp)

1

Andhra Pradesh

22,972

3,785.595

2

Arunachal Pradesh

18,945

600.1

3

Assam

6,926

1,605

4

Bihar

12,303

3,968.6

5

Chhattisgarh

7,754

27,867.72

6

Delhi

0

1,269

7

Goa

393

32.72

8

Gujarat

9,253

13,576.6

9

Haryana

56,727

2,321.25

10

Himachal Pradesh

22,592

1,390.5

11

Jammu & Kashmir

65,319

7,719.85

12

Jharkhand

9,450

3,539.9

13

Karnataka

49,644

4,676.41

14

Kerala

40,412

13,894.39

15

Madhya Pradesh

4,016

3,654

16

Maharashtra

3,497

3,857.7

17

Manipur

3,900

1,241

18

Meghalaya

7,844

884.5

19

Mizoram

6,801

1,719

20

Nagaland

1,045

1,506

21

Odisha

5,274

567.515

22

Punjab

8,626

1,950

23

Rajasthan

1,51,964

10,850

24

Sikkim

15,059

850

25

Tamil Nadu

2,26,946

12,752.6

26

Telangana

0

5,368

27

Tripura

32,723

612

28

Uttar Pradesh

2,35,909

10,041.46

29

Uttarakhand

91,595

1,534.03

30

West Bengal

1,45,332

1,730

31

Andaman & Nicobar

468

167

32

Chandigarh

275

730

33

Lakshadweep

0

2,190

34

Puducherry

25

121

35

Others

24,047

23,885

36

NABARD

1,08,000

0

 

Total

13,96,036

1,72,458


Source:
MNRE Annual Report 2016-17

 

 

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