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All About Renewables

Holistic Information Portal on Renewable Energy

Overview Grid-Connected Renewables

RENEWABLE ELECTRICITY: INDIA

The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has revised and raised the renewable energy potential for India to an estimated 900 GW. Solar is seen to have the largest potential, with a revised estimate of 750 GW (taking into consideration use of 3% wasteland for solar installations), followed by wind with 102 GW (at 80 m mast height); the National Institute of Wind Energy (NIWE) has revised the estimate for wind power to 302 GW at 100 m mast height. Potential for small hydro and bioenergy is 20 GW and 25 GW, respectively.

INSTALLED CAPACITY OF RENEWABLES: TARGETS AND ACHIEVEMENTS

In the 2015 Union Budget, the Government of India set the target of achieving 175 GW of RE by 2022. The target comprises 60 GW from wind, 100 GW from solar, 10 GW from biomass, and 5 GW from small hydro. Out of 100 GW solar, 40 GW is estimated to come from rooftop solar while the remaining 60 GW is anticipated from ground-mounted,grid-connected medium and large solar projects. If the target of 175 GW by 2022 is achieved, it would contribute to 19.44% of the total RE potential of 900 GW and about 20.3% of electricity in the total demand. This would mean generation of around 327 BU of electricity (162 BU from solar, 112 BU from wind, 38 BU from biomass, and 15 BU from SHP).

The southern, western, and northern regions of India are expected to install more than 91% of the total target while the remainder is expected to be contributed by the north-eastern and eastern regions. Maharashtra has the highest target of 22 GW followed by Tamil Nadu with 21.5 GW.

From 57 GW in2016 - 17, the total installed grid-connected renewable energy capacity reached 69 GW at the end of2017 - 18. Figure 1 provides the growth trajectory of annual capacity addition and cumulative installed capacity of RE for the period2012 - 13to2017 - 18.In2017 - 18, RE contributed 20% of the total installed power generation capacity in the country. Of this, the share of wind was 34 GW (9.9%), followed by solar with 22 GW (6.2%), small hydro with 4.4 GW (1.3%), biomass and co-generation with 8.7 GW (2.5%) and waste-to-energy with 0.13 GW (0.04%) (Tables 1 and Table 2).

Figure 1: Annual Capacity Addition and Cumulative Installed Capacity of Grid-Connected RE(2012 - 2018)

 Source: WISE, 2018 (compiled from MOSPI, CEA data).

 

Table 1: Share of Grid-Connected Renewable Energy in Total RE Capacity (as on 31 March 2018)

Source

Achievement (MW)

Share in Total RE Capacity (%)

Wind Power

34,046.00

49.33

Solar Power

21,651.48

31.37

Small Hydro Power

4,485.81

6.50

Bio-power (Biomass & Gasification and

8,700.80

12.61

Bagasse Co-generation)

   

Waste-to-Energy

138.3

0.20

Total

69,022.39

100.00

Source: CEA, Installed Capacity, March 2018.

 

Table 2: India Electricity Capacity Mix

Source

Installed Capacity (MW)

% of Total Installed Capacity

Coal

1,97,171.50

57.32

Gas

24,897.46

7.24

Diesel

837.63

0.24

Total Thermal

2,22,906.59

64.80

Nuclear

6,780.00

1.97

Large Hydro

45,293.42

13.17

Small Hydro

4,485.81

1.30

Wind

34,046.00

9.90

Biomass/Co-gen

8,700.80

2.53

Waste-to-Energy

138.3

0.04

Solar Power

21,651.48

6.29

Total Renewables (excluding Hydro)

69,022.39

20.06

Grand Total India

3,44,002.40

100.00

Source: CEA, Installed Capacity, March 2018.

 

For 2017-18, the capacity addition target of grid-connected power was 20.2 GW. Against this, the actual capacity installed in 2017-18 was 11.8 GW, the technology-wise break-up of which is given in Table 3.

India added 1.7 GW wind capacity in 2017-18, taking the total installed wind capacity to 34 GW. Maximum capacity addition is seen in the states of Karnataka (750 MW) and Andhra Pradesh (344 MW).

 

Table 3: Capacity Addition in 2017-18 (Grid Power Only)

Sr. No.

Technology

Capacity Installed (MW)

1

Solar

9,362.65

2

Wind

1,766.23

3

Biomass

519.10

4

Small Hydro

105.95

     

5

Waste-to-Energy

24.22

 

Total

11,778.15

Source: WISE, 2018 (compiled from CEA data).

 

With the installation of 9.3 GW solar power in 2017 - 18, the cumulative installed capacity of solar reached 22 GW. This was a quantum jump over the previous year. The six leading solar power states in India (in terms of installed capacity), are Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh. During the next four years, 78.3 GW capacity will have to be installed to achieve the 100 GW target by 2022.

 

INSTALLED CAPACITY MIX

India is the world’s third largest producer of electricity having a total installed capacity of 3.4 GW (3,44,002 MW). Of this, around 65% is from thermal energy (57.3% from coal, 7.2% from gas and 0.2% from diesel), 2% from nuclear power, 13% from large hydro, and 20% from renewables (wind, solar, biomass, waste-to-energy)(Figure 2 and Table 2).

For the first time in 2016 - 17, renewable capacity addition at 11.3 GW exceeded that of conventional energy, and the trend continued in 2017 - 18 with capacity addition at 11.8 GW. The movement in annual capacity addition of both energies in the last four years is shown in Figure 3.

 

Figure 2: Source-wise Installed Capacity (March 2018)

Source: CEA, Installed Capacity, March 2018


Figure 3: Capacity Addition of Conventional Energy and RE (2012 - 13 to 2017 - 18)

Source: WISE, 2018 (compiled from Ministry of Power and CEA data).

 

OFF-GRID RENEWABLE POWER

As per MNRE data, in 2017-18, around 14.7 lakh home lighting systems were installed, while renewable energy- based stand-alone power installed capacity was about 181 MWp. State/UT-wise status is given in Table 4.

Like grid-connected RE, a major leap in installations was also seen in the off-grid sector. With the rapid decline in costs of off-grid RE systems coupled with an increased level of awareness among the rural masses, private and self- sponsored off-grid RE system installations grew due to market economics. From 603 systems with about 3 MWp in 2009 - 10 to 1,477 systems with 182 MWp in 2017 - 18, the growth has been significant. Such a huge increase in capacity, with fewer numbers of systems, signifies the growth of large-sized rooftop solar systems in the last few years.

 

Table 4: State/UT-wise Status of Off-grid Renewable Energy Systems (as on 31 December 2017)

Sr. No.

State / UT

Solar Home Lighting

Stand-Alone Renewable Energy-

   

Systems (Nos)

Based Power Plants (kWp)

       

1

Andhra Pradesh

22,972

3,785.595

2

Arunachal Pradesh

18,945

650.1

3

Assam

6,926

1,605

4

Bihar

12,303

4,168.6

5

Chhattisgarh

7,754

28,660.04

6

Delhi

0

1,269

7

Goa

393

32.72

8

Gujarat

9,253

13,576.6

9

Haryana

56,727

2,321.25

10

Himachal Pradesh

29,342

1,905.5

11

Jammu & Kashmir

65,319

7,719.85

12

Jharkhand

9,450

3,539.9

13

Karnataka

52,638

7,754.01

14

Kerala

41,912

15,825.39

15

Madhya Pradesh

4,016

3,654

16

Maharashtra

3,497

3,857.7

17

Manipur

3,900

1,241

18

Meghalaya

7,844

1,084.5

19

Mizoram

6,801

2,019

20

Nagaland

1,045

1,506

21

Odisha

5,274

567.515

22

Punjab

8,626

2,066

23

Rajasthan

1,66,978

10,850

24

Sikkim

15,059

850

25

Tamil Nadu

2,73,015

12,752.6

26

Telangana

0

6,643

27

Tripura

32,723

667

28

Uttar Pradesh

2,35,909

10,041.46

29

Uttarakhand

91,595

2,365.023

30

West Bengal

1,45,332

1,730

       

31

Andaman & Nicobar

468

167

32

Chandigarh

275

730

33

Lakshadweep

600

2,190

34

Puducherry

25

121

35

Others

24,047

23,885

36

NABARD

1,16,226

0

 

Total

14,77,189

1,81,901.36

Source: MNRE, Annual Report 2017-2018.

Source: WISE, 2018, Renewables India 2018 report.

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